Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP)

Course Introduction 9m

Domain 1 – Information Security and Risk Management 3h25m
Information Security and Risk Management
Mainframe Days
In the Good Old Days – Who Knew?
Today’s Environment
Security Definitions
Examples of Some Vulnerabilities that Are Not Always Obvious
Risk – What Does It Really Mean?
Who Deals with Risk?
Overall Business Risk
AIC Triad
Who Is Watching?
Social Engineering
What Security People Are Really Thinking
Security Concepts
The Bad Guys Are Motivated
If Not Obscurity – Then What?
Open Standards
Common Open Standards
Without Standards
“Soft” Controls
Logical Controls
Physical Controls
Are There Gaps?
Understanding Drivers
Holistic Security
Not Always So Easy
What Is First?
Different Types of Law
How Is Liability Determined?
Examples of Due Diligence
Examples of Due Care
Prudent Person Rule
Prudent Person
Taking the Right Steps
Why Do We Need Regulations?
Risk Management
Why Is Risk Management Difficult?
Necessary Level of Protection Is Different for Each Organization
Security Team/Committee
Risk Management Process
Planning Stage – Team
Analysis Paralysis
Planning Stage – Scope
Planning Stage – Analysis Method
Risk Management Tools
Defining Acceptable Levels
Acceptable Risk Level
Collecting and Analyzing Data Methods
What Is a Company Asset?
Data Collection – Identify Assets
Data Collection – Assigning Values
Asset Value
Data Collection – Identify Threats
Data Collection – Calculate Risks
Scenario Based – Qualitative
Risk Approach
Qualitative Analysis Steps
Want Real Answers?
Qualitative Risk Analysis Ratings
Qualitative Risks
Quantitative Analysis Steps
Quantitative Analysis
How Often Will This Happen?
ARO Values and Their Meaning
Calculate ALE
ALE Value Uses
Calculate Risks – ALE Example
Your Turn!
ALE Calculation
Can a Purely Quantitative Analysis Be Accomplished?
Risk Types
Examples of Types of Losses
Delayed Loss
Cost/Benefit Analysis
Cost of a Countermeasure
Cost/Benefit Analysis Countermeasure Criteria
Calculating Cost/Benefit
Control Selection Requirements
Quantitative Analysis
Quantitative Analysis Disadvantages
Qualitative Analysis Approach
Qualitative Analysis Disadvantages
Can You Get Rid of All Risk?
Calculating Residual Risk
Uncertainty Analysis
Dealing with Risk
Management’s Response to Identified Risks
Risk Acceptance
Risk Analysis Process Summary
Components of Security Program
A Layered Approach
In Security, You Never Want Any Surprises
Building Foundation
Security Roadmap
Functional and Assurance Requirements
Building Foundation
Most Organizations
Silo Security Structure
Islands of Security Needs and Tools
Get Out of a Silo Approach
Security Is a Process
Approach to Security Management
Result of Battling Management
Industry Best Practices Standards
ISO/IEC 17799
Pieces and Parts
New ISO Standards
Inside of COBIT
COBIT – Control Objectives
Information Technology Infrastructure Library
3rd Party Governance
Security Governance
Security Program Components
Policy Framework
Policy Types
Organizational Policy
Policy Approved – Now What?
Issue-Specific Policies
ASP Policy Example
System-Specific Policies
Standard Example
Data Collection for Metrics
Tying Them Together
Program Support
Entity Relationships
Senior Management’s Role
Security Roles
Information Classification
Information Classification Program
Data Leakage
Do You Want to End Up in the News?
Types of Classification Levels
Data Protection Levels
Classification Program Steps
Information Classification Components
Procedures and Guidelines
Classification Levels
Information Classification Criteria
Criteria Example
Or Not
Information Owner Requirements
Clearly Labeled
Testing Classification Program
Who Is Always Causing Problems?
Employee Management
Employee Position and Management
Hiring and Firing Issues
A Few More Items
Unfriendly Termination
Security Awareness and Training
Training Characteristics
Security Enforcement Issues
Answer This Question
Domain 1 Review
Domain 2 – Access Control 5h 11m
Access Control
Agenda 1
Threat Modeling – Nomenclature
Threat Modeling Process
Asset Valuation
Vulnerability Analysis
Access Control Mechanism Examples
Technical Controls
Administrative Controls
Access Control Characteristics
Preventive Controls
Preventive – Administrative Controls
Preventive – Physical Controls
Preventive – Technical Controls
Control Combinations
Detective – Administrative Control
Detective Examples
Administrating Access Control
OS, Application, Database
Administrating Access Control
Authorization Creep
Accountability and Access Control
Trusted Path
Fake Login Pages Look Convincing
Who Are You?
Identification Issues
Authentication Mechanisms Characteristics
Strong Authentication
Fraud Controls
Internal Control Tool: Separation of Duties
Authentication Mechanisms in Use Today
Biometrics Technology
Biometric Devices
Verification Steps
What a Person Is
Why Use Biometrics?
Biometric Type
Identification or Authentication?
Iris Sampling
Finger Scan
Hand Geometry
Facial Recognition
Biometrics Verification
Downfalls to Biometric Use
Biometrics Error Types
Crossover Error Rate
Biometric System Types
Password Generators
Password “Shoulds”
Support Issues
Password Attacks
Attack Steps
Many Tools to Break Your Password
Rainbow Table
Passwords Should NOT Contain…
What’s Left?
Countermeasures for Password Cracking
Cognitive Passwords
One-Time Password Authentication
Synchronous Token
One Type of Solution
Synchronous Steps
Administrator Configures
Challenge Response Authentication
Asynchronous Token Device
Asynchronous Steps
Challenge Response Authentication
Cryptographic Keys
Passphrase Authentication
Key Protection
Memory Cards
Memory Card Characteristics
Smart Card
Card Types
Smart Card Attacks
Software Attack
Side Channel Attack
Side Channel Data Collection
Identity Management
How Are These Entities Controlled?
Some Current Issues
Typical Chaos
Different Identities
Identity Management Technologies
Directory Component
Enterprise Directory
Directory Responsibilities
Authoritative Sources
Meta Directory
Directory Interactions
Web Access Management
Web Access
Password Management
Legacy Single Sign-On
Account Management Systems
Identify and Access Provisioning Lifecycle
Provisioning Component
Not Just Computers
User Entitlement
Access Review and Audit
Profile Update
Working Together
Enterprise Directory
Identity Management Solution Components
Right for Your Company
What you need to know
Federated Identity
Identity Theft
Fake Login Tools
How Do These Attacks Work?
Attempts to Get Your Credentials
How Do These Work?
Instructional Emails
Knowing What You Are Disposing of Is Important
Other Examples
Another Danger to Be Aware of… Spyware
Is Someone Watching You?
What Does This Have to Do with My Computer?
Sometimes You Know that Software Is Installing on Your System
New Spyware Is Being Identified Every Week
Spyware Comes in Many Different Forms
How to Prevent Spyware
Different Technologies
Single Sign-on Technology
Single Sign-on
Directory Services as a Single Sign-on Technology
Active Directory
Some Technologies Can Combine Services
Security Domain
Domains of Trust
Domain Illustration
Thin Clients
Kerberos as a Single Sign-on Technology
Kerberos Components Working Together
Pieces and Parts
More Components of Kerberos
KDC Components
Kerberos Steps
Ticket Components
Steps of Validation
Kerberos Security
Why Go Through All of this Trouble?
Issues Pertaining to Kerberos
Kerberos Issues
SESAME as a Single Sign-on Technology
SESAME Steps for Authentication
Models for Access
Access Control Models
Discretionary Access Control Model
ACL Access
File Permissions
Enforcing a DAC Policy
Security Issues
Mandatory Access Control Model
MAC Enforcement Mechanism – Labels
Formal Model
Software and Hardware
Software and Hardware Guards
Where Are They Used?
MAC Versus DAC
Role-Based Access Control
RBAC Hierarchy
RBAC and SoD
Acquiring Rights and Permissions
Rule-Based Access Control
Firewall Example
Access Control Matrix
Capability Tables
User Capability Tables
Temporal Access Control
Access Control Administration
Access Control Methods
Centralized Approach
Remote Centralized Administration
RADIUS Characteristics
TACACS+ Characteristics
Diameter Characteristics
Diameter Protocol
Mobile IP
Diameter Architecture
Two Pieces
Decentralized Access Control Administration
Controlling Access to Sensitive Data
Protecting Access to System Logs
Accountability = Auditing Events
Agenda 2
IDS Steps
Network IDS Sensors
Host IDS
Types of IDSs
Signature-Based Example
Behavior-Based IDS
Statistical Anomaly
Statistical IDS
Protocol Anomaly
What Is a Protocol Anomaly?
Protocol Anomaly Issues
Traffic Anomaly
IDS Response Mechanisms
Responses to Attacks
IDS Issues
Intrusion Prevention System
Vulnerable IDS
Trapping an Intruder
Domain 2 Review
Domain 3 – Cryptography 5h 11m
Services Provided by Cryptography
Cryptographic Definitions
A Few More Definitions
Need Some More Definitions?
Now This Would be Hard Work
Symmetric Cryptography – Use of Secret Keys
Historical Uses of Symmetric Cryptography – Hieroglyphics
Scytale Cipher
Substitution Ciphers
Simple Substitution Cipher Atbash
Simple Substitution Cipher Caesar Cipher
Caesar Cipher Example
Simple Substitution Cipher ROT13
Historical Uses
Polyalphabetic Cipher – Vigenere Cipher
Polyalphabetic Substitution
Vigenere Algorithm
Enigma Machine
U-Boats had Enigma Machines
Code Book
Historical Uses of Symmetric Cryptography – Running Key and Concealment
Agenda 1
Cryptography Lifecycle
Transposition Ciphers
Key and Algorithm Relationship
Does Size Really Matter?
It Does with Key Sizes
Key space
Ways of Breaking Cryptosystems – Brute Force
Brute Force Components
Ways of Breaking Cryptosystems – Frequency Analysis
Strength of a Cryptosystem
Do You Know What You are Doing?
Developing Cryptographic Solutions In-House
Characteristics of Strong Algorithms
Open or Closed More Secure?
Agenda 2
Types of Ciphers Used Today
Type of Symmetric Cipher – Block Cipher
S-Boxes Used in Block Ciphers
Binary Mathematical Function 1
Type of Symmetric Cipher – Stream Cipher
Symmetric Characteristics
Initialization Vectors
Security Holes
Strength of a Stream Cipher
Let’s Dive in Deeper
Symmetric Key Cryptography
Out-of-Band Transmission
Symmetric Key Management Issue
Symmetric Algorithm Examples
Symmetric Downfalls
Asymmetric Cryptography
Key Functions
Public Key Cryptography Advantages
Asymmetric Algorithm Disadvantages
Confusing Names
Symmetric versus Asymmetric
Asymmetric Algorithm Examples
Questions 1
When to Use Which Key
Using the Algorithm Types Together
Encryption Steps
Receiver’s Public Key Is Used to Encrypt the Symmetric Key
Receiver’s Private Key Is Used to Decrypt the Symmetric Key
Digital Envelope
E-mail Security
Secret versus Session Keys
Asymmetric Algorithms We Will Dive Into
Asymmetric Algorithm – Diffie-Hellman
Key Agreement Schemes
Asymmetric Algorithm – RSA
Factoring Large Numbers
RSA Operations
RSA Key Size
El Gamal
ECC Benefits
Asymmetric Mathematics
Asymmetric Security
Symmetric Ciphers We Will Dive Into
Symmetric Algorithms – DES
Block Cipher
Double DES
Evolution of DES
Modes of 3DES
Encryption Modes
Block Cipher Modes – CBC
IV and CBC
CBC Example
Different Modes of Block Ciphers –ECB
ECB versus CBC
Block Cipher Modes – CFB and OFB
CFB and OFB Modes
Counter Mode
Modes Summary
Symmetric Cipher – AES
Agenda 3
Data Integrity
Hashing Steps
Protecting the Integrity of Data
Hashing Algorithms
Data Integrity Mechanisms
Hashing Strength
Question 1
Weakness in Using Only Hash Algorithms
More Protection in Data Integrity
HMAC – Sender
HMAC – Receiver
Another Look
What Services
Authentication Types
MAC Using Block Ciphers
What Services?
Question 2
Digital Signatures
One More Look 1
U.S. Government Standard
What is…
Not Giving up the Farm
Zero Knowledge Proof
Message Integrity Controls
Security Issues in Hashing
Example of a Birthday Attack
Birthday Attack Issues
Key Management
Key Backup
Key Management (Cont.)
Key Usage
Key Types
Agenda 4
Why Do We Need a PKI?
PKI and Its Components
Components of PKI
PKI Steps
RA Roles
Let’s Walk Through an Example
Digital Certificates
Signing the Certificate
Verifying the Certificate
Trusted CA’s
Non-Trusted CA
One More Look 2
What Do You Do with a Certificate?
Components of PKI, Repository, and CRLs
CRL Process
Different Uses for Certificates
Lifecycle of a Certificate
Cross Certification
PKI and Trust
Agenda 5
Historical Uses of Symmetric Cryptography – Vernam Cipher
Binary Mathematical Function 2
One-Time Pad in Action
One-Time Pad Characteristics
Steganography Utilities
Digital Watermarking
Link versus End-to-End Encryption
End-to-End Encryption
Encryption Location
Email Standards
You Decide
Secure Protocols
SSL Connection Setup
Example – SSL
Validating Certificate
Secure Protocols (Cont.)
SSL and the OSI Model
How Are You Doing?
Hard the First Times Through
Secure Email Standard
Agenda 6
Network Layer Protection
IPSec Key Management
IPSec Handshaking Process
VPN Establishment
SAs in Use
Key Issues Within IPSec
Configuration of SA Parameters
IPSec Configuration Options
IPSec Is a Suite of Protocols
AH and ESP Modes
IPSec Modes of Operation
VPN Establishment (Cont.)
Questions 2
Attack Types
Attacks on Cryptosystems
Known-Plaintext Attack
Chosen-Plaintext Attack
Chosen-Ciphertext Attack
Adaptive Attacks
Side Channel Attacks
Domain 3 Review
Domain 4 – Physical Security 1h 38m
Physical Security
Physical Security – Threats
Different Types of Threats
Categories of Threats
Wake Up Call
Not Just Hacking
Number One Priority
Legal Issues
Planning Phase
Physical Security Program Goals
Measurable Results
Planning Process
Risk Assessment Needs to be Carried Out
Deterrence Options
Another Delay Approach
Layered Defense Model
Layers of Defense
Weak Link in the Chain
Part of the Overall Security Program
Controls with the Same Goals
Agenda 1
Threat Categories
Crime Prevention through Environmental Design
Crux of Approach
Protection Built In
CPTED Examples
Natural Access Control
Access Control
CPTED Main Strategies
Target Hardening
Access Barriers
Facility Site Selection
Urban Camouflage
Facility Construction
Earthquake Protection
Construction Materials
Rebar Encased in Concrete
Pentagon with Reinforcements
Fire Resistance Walls
Data Center
Data Center Protection
Designing a Secure Site
Levels of Protection
Door Types
Hollow-Core Doors
Solid Core Doors
Bullet Proof Door
Door Component
Door Lock Types
Window Types
Controlling Access
Sensitive Areas
Possible Threats
Security Zones
Various Sensors
Lock Types
Controlling Keys
Smart Locks
Lock Picking
Entry Access Control
Facility Access
Wireless Proximity Devices
Device Types
Entrance Protection
Door Configurations
External Boundary Protection
Perimeter Protection – Fencing
Detection Fencing
Detecting Intruders
Fencing Characteristics
Fencing Issues
What Level of Protection is Needed?
Perimeter Protection – Lighting
Properly Laid Out
Lighting Issues
Perimeter Security – Security Guards
Guard Tasks
Security Guards
Level of Detail that is Required
Items to Consider about CCTVs
CCTV Components
CCTV Lens Types
CCTV Components (Cont.)
Agenda 2
Types of Physical Intrusion Detection Systems
Intrusion Detection Characteristics
Electro-Mechanical Sensors
Volumetric Sensors
Alarm Systems
Securing Mobile Devices
Stolen Laptops (partial list..)
Agenda 3
HVAC Attributes
Environmental Considerations
Who’s Got Gas?
Documentation of Procedures
Electrical Power
Backup Power
Problems with Steady Power Current
Power Interference
Protection Against Electromagnetic Discharge
Power Preventive Measures
Device Protection
Consistent Power Flow
Static Electricity
Agenda 4
Fire Prevention
Not Allowed
Components of Fire
Fire Sources
Automatic Detector Mechanisms
Fire Detection
Fire Suppression Agents
Fire Types
Emergency Power Off Switch
Employees Need to be Trained
Fire Suppression Systems
Fire Extinguishers
Emergency Procedures
Drills and Testing
Water Detectors
Full Program
Domain 4 Review
Domain 5 – Security Architecture and Design 3h 04m
Security Architecture and Design
Agenda 1
Computer Architecture
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Arithmetic Logic Unit
Control Unit
Processing Data
Register Types
Program Status Word (PSW)
Trust Levels
Memory Segment Assignment
Process and Thread
Process States
Agenda 2
Interrupt Masking
Process Table
Moving Information
Processor and Buses
32-Bit versus 64-Bit
Working Together
System Functionality
Multitasking Types
Agenda 3
Memory Types
Cache Types
Read Only Memory
Virtual Memory
Types of Memory
Architecture Components
Memory Manager Responsibilities
Memory Protection
Memory Manager Responsibilities (Cont.)
Memory Addressing
Base and Limit Addresses
Shared Memory
Memory Protection (Cont.)
Memory Leaks
Agenda 4
CPU and OS
System Protection – Levels of Trust
Trust Levels (Cont.)
System Protection – Protection Rings
What Does It Mean to Be in a Specific Ring?
System Protection – Layering
System Call Interfaces
API Application Programming Interface
System Protection – Application Program Interface
Process Protection
Process Isolation
Virtual Mapping
Process ID
Virtual Machines
Input/Output Devices
I/O Addressing
Device Types
Device Drivers
Security Issues
Software Complexity
Types of Compromises
Agenda 5
Trusted Computing Base
Hardened Kernel
Execution Domains
Simple Definition
Main Functions of TCB
Process Activation
Execution Domain Switching
Security Perimeter
System Protection – Reference Monitor
Security Kernel Requirements
Tying Concepts Together
Agenda 6
Security Levels
MAC Modes
Modes of Operation
MAC Modes (Cont.)
Agenda 7
Enterprise Architecture
Without an Enterprise Security Architecture
Can’t Just Wing It
Just Right
Breaking Down the Components
Strategic Alignment
Business Enablement
Process Enhancement
Process Enhancement Requires…
Security Foundation
Security Effectiveness
Are We Doing it Right?
Integration of Components
How Do We Do All of This?
Security Enterprise Architecture
Industry Model
Security Roadmap
Trust Zones
Infrastructure Level
Application Layer
Component Layer
Business Process Layer
Holistic Security
Agenda 8
Access Control Models
Policy versus Model
State Machine
Information Flow
Information Flow Model
Rules of Bell-LaPadula
Rules Clarified
Tranquility Types
Definition of Integrity
Biba Access Rules
Goals of Model
Clark Wilson Components
Clark-Wilson (Cont.)
Clark-Wilson Model
Non-Interference Model
Lattice-Based Access Control
Lattice Approach
Understanding Lattice
Access Control Matrix Model
Access Control Matrix
Brewer and Nash Model – Chinese Wall
Brewer and Nash
Take-Grant Model
Graham-Denning Model
Agenda 9
Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC)
TCSEC Rating Breakdown
Evaluation Criteria – ITSEC
ITSEC Ratings
ITSEC – Good and Bad
Common Criteria
Common Criteria Standard
Security Functional Requirements
Security Assurance Requirements
Common Criteria Components
Common Criteria Requirements
Package Ratings
Common Criteria Outline
Certification Versus Accreditation
Domain 5 Review
Domain 6 – Law, Investigation and Ethics 1h 10m
Law, Investigation and Ethics
Not Just Fun and Games
Examples of Computer Crimes
Who Perpetrates These Crimes?
Types of Motivation for Attacks
A Few Attack Types
Dumpster Diving
Telephone Fraud
Privacy of Sensitive Data
Privacy Issues – U.S. Laws as Examples
European Union Principles on Privacy
Routing Data Through Different Countries
Employee Privacy Issues
Agenda 1
Civil Law
Criminal Law
Administrative Law
U.S. Federal Laws
Trade Secret
More Intellectual Property Laws
Software Licensing
Software Piracy
Digital Millennium Copyright Act
Agenda 2
Computer Crime and Its Barriers
Countries Working Together
Worldwide Cybercrime
Security Principles for International Use
Determine if a Crime Has Indeed Been Committed
Bringing in Law Enforcement
Citizen versus Law Enforcement Investigation
Investigation of Any Crime
Role of Evidence in a Trial
Evidence Requirements
Chain of Custody
How Is Evidence Processed?
Hearsay Evidence
Hearsay Rule Exception
Agenda 3
Preparing for a Crime Before It Happens
Incident Handling
Evidence Collection Topics
Computer Forensics
Hidden Secrets
Trying to Trap the Bad Guy
Companies Can Be Found Liable
Sets of Ethics
Computer Ethics Institute
Internet Architecture Board
Domain 6 Review
Domain 7 – Telecommunications and Networking 6h 55m
Telecommunications and Networking
Agenda 1
OSI Model
OSI Layers
Networking Communications
An Older Model
Data Encapsulation
Application Layer
OSI – Application Layer
Presentation Layer
OSI – Presentation Layer
OSI – Session Layer
Client/Server Model
Client/Server Session Layer
Transport Layer
Transport Layer Analogy
Transport Protocols
OSI – Network Layer
Here to There
Network Layer
OSI – Data Link
Data Link
OSI – Physical Layer
Physical Layer
Layers Working Together
Protocols at Each Layer
Devices Work at Different Layers
Types of Networks
Network Topologies – Physical Layer
Topology Type – Bus
Topology Type – Ring
Topology Type – Star
Network Topologies – Mesh
Mesh Topologies
Summary of Topologies
Agenda 2
LAN Media Access Technologies
Media Access
One Goal of Media Access Technologies
Collision Domain
Back Off, Buddy
Carrier Sense Multiple Access
CSMA/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA)
Media Access Technologies – Ethernet
Media Access Technologies – Token Passing
Token’s Role
Other Technologies
Media Access Technologies – Polling
Agenda 3
Cabling Types – Coaxial
Cabling Types – Twisted Pair
Cable Types
Types of Cabling – Fiber
Multimode vs. Single Mode
Signal and Cable Issues
Signaling Issues
Transmission Types – Analog and Digital
Transmission Types – Synchronous
Transmission Types – Baseband
Transmission Types – Broadband
Cabling Issues – Plenum-Rated
Transmission Types – Number of Receivers
Internet Group Management Protocol
Network Technologies
Network Technologies (Cont.)
EDI Evolution
Networking Devices
Network Device – Repeater
Network Device – Hub
Networking Device – Bridge
Forwarding Table Example
Network Devices – Switch
Virtual LAN
Interfaces and VLANs
Networking Devices – Router
Bridges Compared to Routers
Network Devices – Gateway
Agenda 4
Port and Protocol Relationship
Client Ports
Conceptual Use of Ports
TCP/IP Suite
Multi-layer Protocols
UDP versus TCP
TCP Segment
SYN Flood
Teardrop Attack
Source Routing
Source Routing Types
IP Address Ranges
Protocols – ARP
IP to MAC Mapping
How ARP Works
ARP Poisoning
ICMP Packets
A Way Hackers Use ICMP
Ping Steps
Protocols – SNMP
SNMP in Action
SNMP Output
Protocols – SMTP
Mail Relay
Protocols – FTP, TFTP, Telnet
Protocols – RARP and BootP
DHCP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Agenda 5
Networking Device – Bastion Host
Network Configurations
DMZ Configurations
Firewall Comparisons
Network Devices – Firewalls
Firewall Types – Packet Filtering
Packet Filtering Firewall
Packet Filtering Firewall Weaknesses
Packet Filtering
Rule Set Example
Firewall Types – Proxy Firewalls
Firewall Types – Circuit-Level Proxy Firewall
Circuit-Level Proxy
Firewall Types – Application-Layer Proxy
Application-Layer Proxy Advantages
Application-Layer Proxy Disadvantages
Dedicated Proxy Servers
Firewall Types – Stateful
State Table
Firewall Types – Kernel Proxies
Firewall based VPN Devices
Best Practices
Firewall Placement
Packet Filtering (Cont.)
Screened Host
Firewall Architecture Types – Multi- or Dual-Homed
Screened Subnet
Agenda 6
Dial-Up Protocols and Authentication Protocols
Dial-Up Protocol – SLIP
Dial-Up Protocol – PPP
PPP versus SLIP
Authentication Protocols – PAP
Authentication Protocols – CHAP
Authentication Protocol – EAP
Data Inspection
Virtual Private Network Technologies
What Is a Tunneling Protocol?
Tunneling Protocols – PPTP
Tunneling Protocols – L2TP
L2TP Encapsulation
Tunneling Protocols – IPSec
IPSec Basic Features
IPSec Transport Mode
IPSec Tunnel Mode
Security Associations (SAs)
Combining Sas
Iterated Tunnelling
Agenda 7
Layer 3 at Layer 2
Multiprotocol Label Switching
Quality of Service (QoS)
QoS Services
Autonomous Systems
Routing Protocols
Routing Protocols (Cont.)
OSPF Packet Values
Routing Protocol Attacks
Metropolitan Area Network Technologies
MAN Technologies – FDDI
MAN Technologies – SONET
Connecting Networks
Network Services
Network Service – DNS
DNS Server Structure
Name Resolving Steps
Split DNS
Host Name Resolution Attacks
Network Service – NAT
Types of NAT
Storing Data
NIS+ Authentication
Agenda 8
WAN Technologies Are Circuit or Packet Switched
Connecting to the PSTN
Circuit Switching
Steps of Connections
Types of Multiplexing
TDM Process
Statistical Time Division Multiplexing
FDM Process
Packet Switching
Circuit versus Packet Switching
WAN Technologies – Packet Switched
WAN Technologies – X.25
WAN Technologies – Frame Relay
WAN Example
Frame Relay
WAN Technologies – ATM
Cell Switching
Wide Area Network Technologies
Dedicated Lines
WAN Technologies – ISDN
ISDN Service Types
WAN Technologies – DSL
WAN Technologies – Cable Modem
Cable Modems
Cable Network
Hybrid Connection
Satellite Coverage
Satellite Supplying Different Subscribers
Network Perimeter Security
Complexity only Increases
A Layered Approach
Agenda 9
Traditional Voice Network
PSTN (Cont.)
Private Branch Exchange
PBX Vulnerabilities
PBX Best Practices
IP Telephony
Voice Over IP
Combination of Old and New
IP Telephony Components
Media Gateways
PBX and VoIP
Voice over…
IP Telephony Issues
Telephony Protection Mechanisms
Telephony Security
IP Telephony with Wireless
IP Phones Security
Mobile Technology Generations
Mobile Phone Security
Mobile Device Security
Cell Phone
Agenda 10
Wireless Technologies – Access Point
Wireless Frequencies
Alphabet Soup of Standards
Spread Spectrum
Where does Spread Spectrum Work?
Wireless Technologies – Access Point (Cont.)
Wireless Technologies – Service Set ID
Authenticating to an AP
802.11 Authentication
Wireless Technologies – WEP
WEP Problems
Wireless Technologies – More WEP Woes
Lack of Integrity
WEP Security Issues
Frequency Management
802.11 Security Solutions
802.1x Authentication
Types of 802.11 Security
IEEE 802.11i Standard
Wireless EAP
Wireless Technologies – Common Attacks
Wireless Technologies – War Driving
NetStumbler Example
Wireless Reconnaissance Output
Wireless Attacks
Wormhole Attack
Wireless Technologies – WAP
Wireless Technologies – WTLS
Instant Messaging
IM Threats
IM Countermeasures
IM Secure Infrastructure
Domain 7 Review
Domain 8 – Business Continuity 2h 42m
Business Continuity
Needs for BCP
Is Your Organization Prepared?
Is Your Company Prepared?
9/11 Changed Mentalities About BCP
Disaster affected Many
America is Rebuilding
Partial FEMA Disaster List for 2005
Do We have a Plan?
DRP Focus
BCP Focus
Comparing the Two
What is the Purpose of a BCP?
More Reasons to have Plans in Place
BCP is a Core Component of Every Security Program
Steps of BCP Process
Different BCP Model
Documentation and Approval
BCP Policy Outlines
BCP Policy Sample
Who is In Charge and Who Can We Blame?
What’s Needed in a Team?
BCP Development Team
Project Sizing
Properly Determining Scope is Important
BCP Risk Analysis Steps
BIA Steps
Data Gathering
Information from Different Sources
Critical Functions
How to Identify the Most Critical Company Functions
Well, of course an Organization Knows How it Works!
Business Silos
Understanding the Enterprise
BIA Steps (Cont.)
Identifying Functions’ Resources
Who Connects to Who?
BIA Steps (Cont..)
Maximum Tolerable Downtime
MTD Definitions
BIA Steps (Cont…)
Range of Threats to Consider
Thinking Outside of the Box What if….
Biological Threats
BIA Steps (Cont….)
Potential Disasters
Risk Approach
Ranking by Risk Level
Potential Losses
Include all RISK Components
What Have We Completed Up to Now?
BIA Steps (Cont…..)
Recovery Strategies
Alternate Business Process Procedures
Business Process Reconstruction
Recovery Strategies (Cont.)
Facility Recovery
Facility Backups – Hot Site
Facility Backups – Warm Site
Facility Backups – Cold Site
Compatibility Issues with Offsite Facility
Tertiary Sites
Subscription Costs
Multiple Processing Centers
Location, Location, Location
Choosing Site Location
Other Offsite Approaches
Security does Not Stop
More Options
Rolling Hot Site
Recovery Strategies (Cont..)
Supply and Technology Recovery
Equipment Replacement
What Items Need to Be Considered?
Anything Else?
Executive Succession Planning
Recovery Strategies (Cont…)
User Environment Recovery
Recovery Strategies (Cont….)
Data Recovery Technologies
Data Recovery
Backup Redundancy
Recovering Data
Automated Backup Technologies
Tape Vaulting
Data Recovery (Cont.)
Clustering for Fault Tolerance
Disk or Database Shadowing
Which Option to Use
Cost Effective Measures
Resources, Time, Solutions
Determining Recovery Solutions
Cost and Recovery Times
BIA Steps (Cont……)
Recovery Solutions
Preventative Measures
Reviewing Insurance
Results from the BIA
Now Ready to Develop the Plan
Basic Structure of BCP
Products That Can Help
Plan Components
Teams to Be Developed
External Groups
Policy Components
Activation Phase
Damage Assessment
Notifying Personnel
Plan Activation
Emergency Response
Policy Components (Cont.)
Next Phases
Recovery Procedures
Documentation of Recovery Steps
Policy Components (Cont..)
Reconstitution Phase
Reconstitution Items
Returning to Original Facility
Who goes First?
Disaster Hit – Now What?
Termination of BCP
Life Cycle
Who has the Plan?
Backup of the Backup Plan
Types of Tests to Choose From
Test Objectives
Training Requirements
Lessons Learned
What Is Success?
Out of Date?
BCP Plans Commonly and Quickly Become Out of Date
Keeping it Current
Change Control
Resulting Plan Should Contain…
Phases of the BCP
Domain 8 Review
Domain 9 – Application Security 3h 27m
Application Security
How Did We Get Here?
Why Are We Not Improving at a Higher Rate?
Usual Trend of Dealing with Security
Where to Implement Security
Agenda 1
Software Development Tools
CASE Tools
New Paradigm of Coding
Security Issues
Language Types
Turn into Machine Code
New and Old
Object-Oriented Programming
Classes and Objects
Object Characteristics
Functions and Messages
Modularity of Objects
Object-Oriented Programming Characteristic
Another Characteristic of OOP
Module Characteristics
Low Cohesion
Levels of Cohesion
Agenda 2
Distributed Computing
Distributed Computing – ORBs
Common Object Request Broker Architecture
COM Architecture
DCOM Architecture
Enterprise Java Beans
J2EE Platform Example
Linking Through COM
Mobile Code with Active Content
World Wide Web OLE
ActiveX Security
Java and Applets
Java and Bytecode
Agenda 3
Database Systems
Database Model
Hierarchical Database
Network Database
Object-Oriented Database
Benefits of OO Database Model
Object Relational Database
Relational Database
Database Models – Relational Components
Relational Database Entities
Primary Key
Foreign Key
Database Integrity
Different Modeling Approaches
Database Access Methods
Accessing Databases
OLE DB Database Access
ActiveX Data Objects (ADO)
Java Database Connectivity
Database Connectivity
eXtensible Markup Language
XML Database
Agenda 4
Database Security Mechanisms
Databases are Busy Beasts
Rollback Control
Checkpoint Control
Checkpoint Protection
Lock Controls
Deadlock Example
Two-Phase Commit
Lock Controls Help to Provide ACID
Inference Attack
Database View Control
Common Components
Agenda 5
Data Warehousing
Warehouse Creation
Using a Data Warehouse
Database Component
Data Mart
Potential Malicious Traffic Tunneling through Port 80
URL Interpretation
Common Database Attacks
Agenda 6
Online Transaction Processing
OLTP Requirements
Online Analytical Processing
Knowledge Management
Knowledge Components
HR Example
Knowledge Discovery in Databases
Data Mining
Approaches to Knowledge Management
Expert Systems
Expert System Components
Artificial Neural Networks
Data, Information, Knowledge
Comparing Types
Agenda 7
Software Development Models
System Life Cycle
Project Development – Phases I and II
Project Development – Phases III and IV
Phase V
Project Development – Phases VI and VII
Testing Types
Levels of Tests
Data Contamination Controls
Best Practices for Testing
Test for Specific Threats
Verification versus Validation
Evaluating the Resulting Product
Agenda 8
Controlling How Changes Take Place
Change Control Process
Administrative Controls
Agenda 9
Common Information Flow
Vulnerabilities at Different Layers
Tier Approach and Communication Components
Tiered Network Architectures
Sensitive Data Availability
Find Out Where You Have Been
Pulling Data
Web Server Error Pages
Steps of Interaction
Provide the Hackers with Tools
Common Web Server Flaws
Improper Data Validation
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
Directory Traversal
Buffer Overflow
Cross-Site Scripting Attack
Common SQL Injection Attack
Attacking Mis-configurations
CGI Information
Logging Activities
Are ALL Patches Applied?
Microsoft Example Best Practices
Authorize Access
Isolation for Protection
Protecting Traffic
Maintain Server Software
Common Issues
Best Practices
Agenda 10
Rolling ‘em Out
Patching Issues
Agenda 11
Boot Sector Invasion
Few Other Types
Types of Viruses
How Do They Work?
More Malware
Blended Malware
A Back Orifice Attack!
Agenda 12
Malware Protection Types
Signature Scanning
Monitoring Activities
Monitoring for Changes
More Bad Stuff
Attack Characteristics
Disclosing Data in an Unauthorized Manner
Covert Storage Channel
Covert Timing Channel
Circumventing Access Controls
TOC/TOU Examples
Attack Type – Race Condition
Attacking Through Applications
How Buffers and Stacks Are Supposed to Work
How a Buffer Overflow Works
Watching Network Traffic
Traffic Analysis
Functionally Two Different Types Of Rootkits
Examples of Trojaned Files
Domain 9 Review
Domain 10 – Operations Security 2h 16m
Operations Security
Computer Operations
Operations Security Involves
What Do We Have?
Hardware Protection
Licensing Issues
Software Installation
ITIL – Problem Management
Problem Management
Areas of Problem Management
Problem Management Procedures for Processing Problems
Higher Level Look
Data Output Controls
Administrative Controls Personnel Controls
Security Operations Personnel
Change Control
Configuration Management
Another Example
Agenda 1
Resource Protection
Library Maintenance
Media Labels
Media Controls
Software Escrow
Media Reuse
Weak Link
Liabilities of Insecure Disposal of Information
Devastating to the Company
Results of Data Leakage
Object Reuse
Safe Disposal
Physical Destruction
Remaining Data
Why Not Just Delete the Files?
Formatting Media
Agenda 2
Different Types of Backups
Backup Types
Incremental Backup
Differential Backup
Backup Protection
Continuous Threat
Agenda 3
Devices Will Fail
Mean Time Between Failure
Mean Time to Repair
Single Point of Failure
Redundant and Fault Tolerance
Mirroring Data
Disk Duplexing
Direct Access Storage Device
Redundant Array of Independent Disks
Massive Array of Inactive Disks (MAID)
Redundant Array of Independent Tapes (RAIT)
Serial Advanced Technology Architecture
Fault Tolerance
Network Redundancy
Mesh Network
Redundancy Mechanism
Backup Configuration Files
Some Threats to Computer Operations
Trusted Recovery of Software
After System Crash
Security Concerns
Agenda 4
Contingency Planning
Agenda 5
Remote Access Security
Remote Access
Administering Systems Remotely
Facsimile Security
Securing Data in Motion
Support Systems
Agenda 6
Before Carrying Out Vulnerability Testing
Testing for Vulnerabilities
Vulnerability Assessments
Security Testing Issues
Vulnerability Scanning
Basic Scanner
More Functionality
Data Leakage – Keystroke Logging
Looking at Keystrokes
Password Cracking
One of Many Tools
War Dialing
Wardialing Output
Detailed PhoneSweep Output
War Driving
Wireless Reconnaissance Output
Wireless Reconnaissance
Wireless Attacks
MAC Filtering
Penetration Testing
Testing Steps
Testing Methodology
Automated Pen Testing Tools Canvas Operation
Penetration Testing
Automated Pen Testing Tools Core Impact Operation
Post-Testing and Assessment Steps
Penetration Testing Variations
Types of Testing
Protection Mechanism – Honeypot
Log Reviews
Domain 10 Revie

Course Closure

Total Duration: 35h 09m

Leave Comment